Presidential Welcome and Address
Bore da ichi, a chroeso i Gymru ar gyfer Seithfed Gynhadledd Ryngwladol Cymdeithas Celto-Slavica. Rydym yn hapus iawn i fod yma yng Ngwynedd ac rwy’n mawr obeithio y byddwch yn mwynhau eich amser ym Mangor. Hoffwn ddiolch yn fawr iawn i Drefnydd a Chadeirydd y Gynhadledd, yr Athro Peredur Lynch, ac i’r Pwyllgor Trefnu am eu holl waith caled.
This year, in July, Societas Celto-Slavica celebrated its tenth anniversary. It has been a good ten years, busy and full of many highlights. We have held academic conferences in a number of different Slavic countries (Moscow and St Petersburg in the Russian Federation; Łódź in Poland; Dubrovnik in Croatia; Příbram in the Czech Republic); one in Northern Ireland (the first conference in Coleraine); and now, the Seventh Colloquium here in Bangor, Gwynedd.
All the conferences have been a joy: very pleasant occasions in some wonderful, even exotic locations, with much good humour, comraderie and impressive scholarship, all of which contributed greatly to their success. It is pleasing for Celto-Slavica to be in Wales on the occasion of our tenth anniversary, the country with probably the strongest Celtic language today. It is particularly pleasing to be here in Bangor, which has a long and illustrious tradition of Welsh and Celtic scholarship. We thank Professor Peredur Lynch, the Conference Organiser, and the members of the Organising Committee, for their hard work and dedication in preparing such a fine and varied programme of lectures and events which, I am sure, will be most enjoyable and informative. We are very grateful to you.
Northeastern Croatia in the Light of Celtic Heritage
Investigations into the late La Tène period in northern Croatia provided strong evidence of pre-Roman Celtic presence in these areas (cf. Majnarić-Pandžić in Dobrzańska, Megaw, Poleska, 2005). For the following period, recent archaeological investigations in the area of Vinkovci in northeastern Croatia testify to the coexistence and historical over-layering of cultures. Of particular importance is the most recent discovery of a major Early Christianity Complex in the Pannonia Secunda of the 4th and 5th centuries AD. My paper analyses the cultural and onomastic importance of these excavations, in the light of evidence presented by Sims-Williams (2006) and Falileyev (2012).
Aspects of Bilingualism in Maritime Memorates of Ireland
When oral tradition is studied from a linguistic point of view, it is always intriguing to look back in an attempt to study the process of code-switching and the phenomenon of bilingualism in Ireland. The study of folklore sources for such purposes is even more exciting. However, one cannot fully trust early twentieth-century publications of such sources, as they were exposed to the editorial method of de-Anglicization. Editors of such collections took special pride in removing English turns of phrase (Ir. Béarlachas).
In this regard, it is worthwhile to turn to the written records preserved at the National Folklore Collection (UCD, Dublin, Ireland), which present the fruits of the efforts of the Irish Folklore Commission collectors active from 1927 down to the 1970s. The workings of the IFC collectors lay an important foundation for the study of folklore in Ireland devoid of the de-Anglicization of their predecessors. My paper offers a glimpse of the instances of code-mixing found in the IFC manuscripts, with a specific focus on the stories concerned with personal experiences at sea (‘maritime memorates’).
The talk was presented on the basis of research, carried out within the confines of the 'Stories of the Sea: Maritime Memorates in Modern Irish and Scottish Gaelic Folklore Traditions, funded by the AHRC.
The North-eastern Border of the Celtic World
The present study provides an etymological analysis of toponyms collected by Ptolemy from Northeast Europe, as known to him in the mid-second cent. CE. The territory studied roughly corresponds to contemporary Poland and part of the Czech Republic.
Polite Discourse on the Earls’ Journey to Rome: Exploring the Lexical Field and Sensibility of ‘Conversation’ in Irish
Structured personal accounts of contemporary events and happenings composed in the Irish language are exceedingly rare in the pre-Revival period; that is to say, in the period prior to the founding of the Gaelic League or Conradh na Gaeilge in Dublin in 1893. The first such composition and the main focus of this paper is the account of the Ulster Earls’ journey from Rathmullan in Co. Donegal to Rome in 1607-8. It was written by Tadhg Ó Cianáin, a member of the native learned class, who accompanied the Earls on their journey. The work is thought to have been penned in Rome in 1609-10, based on notes written along the way by Tadhg. It survives in a single manuscript copy, Tadhg Ó Cianáin’s own autograph. The manuscript passed from Rome to the Irish College in Louvain in the mid-seventeenth century, was returned to Rome at the end of the eighteenth century, and was brought to Dublin in 1872. It is now in University College Dublin.
The work was first printed in the twentieth century, the initial comprehensive edition being that of Fr Paul Walsh (1916). One of the many arresting features of Tadhg Ó Cianáin’s participant account of the journey by the Earls is the significance accorded polite conversation in the Irish group’s interaction with their aristocratic hosts along the way. Summary phrases such as Bātor sealat ag bríathar-chomrādh re aroile ‘They spent some time in conversation with one another’ and Bátor sealat ag imagallamh 7 ag āiness briathor re aroile ‘They remained speaking and conversing with one another for some time’ recur, as will be explored in this close textual analysis of meta-references to discourse.
Drifting towards Ambiguity: a Closer Look at Palatalisation in L2 Irish
Despite the fact that the modern Celtic languages have received a great deal of scholarly attention, a number of phonetic phenomena observed in Irish are yet to be fully explained. Most studies in this field concern speakers of traditional Irish dialects rather than new speakers of Irish, and are descriptive.
This talk focuses on palatalisation in the Irish spoken by Dublin-based bilinguals for whom English is their first language. All informants had a good knowledge of both Irish and English; however, Irish was their second language, used less frequently in everyday communication. Most Dubliners start learning Irish at school; only a few informants had the opportunity to speak it at home, but even then the language was not used outside class on a regular basis.
Physical Qualities in Goidelic: A Corpus Study of Polysemy and Collocability
This is a small case study of Goidelic adjectives denoting the physical qualities of heaviness and lightness, namely trom and éadrom in Irish and trom and aotrom (eutrom) in Scottish Gaelic. Both go back to Old Irish. I will refer to them by their Old Irish forms tromm and étromm in generalisations. Étromm is derived from tromm with a negative prefix é, suggesting a high level of structural symmetry.
However, this proves not to be the case, and étromm appears to be a lot more than just “not tromm” even at the earliest stage. Moreover, distribution of both trom and étromm differs substiantially in Modern Irish and Scottish Gaelic although these languages are closely related. What makes this kind of adjective especially interesting is A. Wierzbicka and C. Goddard’s assumption that “physical quality concepts refer to embodied human experiences and embodied human sensations” (Goddard and Wierzbicka 2007: 765).
In other words, we call something ‘heavy’ not because it has some specific weight, but rather because we feel this weight. The analysed Goidelic data fully support this statement.
Translating Sybilla Tiburtina into Welsh
The Sibylla Tiburtina is a medieval prophetic text with roots in Late Antiquity. It tells the story of the wise Sybil, who is summoned to the court of the Roman emperor when a hundred of his senators dream the same dream during the same night. Her explanation of this dream is a lengthy prophecy about future kings and their qualities and faults, as well as about the natural disasters and wars the future will bring. The whole culminates in a prophecy about the signs of the Day of Judgment.
The text has a long and complicated history of transmission. Originally written in Byzantine Greek, it has undergone considerable changes since being translated into Latin around the turn of the first millennium. Of this Latin text we have an edition with variants published by Ernst Sackur (1898). More recently, Anke Holdenried has worked extensively on the various versions of the Latin Sybil, and the differences between them, notably in her book The Sybil and her Scribes (Holdenried 2006).
The first extant vernacular translation is in Norman French and dates from the twelfth century. There are two Middle Welsh versions of this text, one in Peniarth 14, the other in the Red Book of Hergest [RB] and the White Book of Rhydderch [WB]. In this paper, the latter will be discussed. There are only slight variations between these two versions, and I base my text on RB as edited recently on the Welsh Prose 1300-1425 project (Luft et al. 2013), with a few variant readings from WB in the same corpus. For the sake of clarity, I have silently amended capitalisation and punctuation.
The Latin source of this translation is unknown, but must, as Marged Haycock has noted (Haycock 2005: 123), have been close to Sackur’s text. All translations are my own. In my research I am interested in the translation process of the text from Latin into Middle Welsh, and in this paper I discuss some of the general tendencies of the Welsh translator of Sibli Ddoet ‘the wise Sybil’.
The Semantics of trwm in Middle Welsh Prose
Like its Goidelic cognate trom, analysed in Dereza (this volume), Welsh trwm is highly polysemous. In contrast to Dereza’s more general approach, I discuss here in detail the usage of this adjective in one relatively short period, based on the Welsh Prose 1300-1425 corpus (Luft et al. 2013; henceforth WP).
In order to make the Goidelic and Welsh data comparable, I analyse my data using the same classification of senses as Dereza. Despite some difficulties arising from the structure of the corpus used, I discuss the frequency of the usage within the four domains: experiential, parametrical, psycho-physiological and emotional. The last domain is the main focus of my attention due to the diversity of constructions in which trwm is thus used. I end by drawing some conclusions concerning the use of Celtic data in lexical typology.
Маѳъ Маѳонъвичь: Cyfieithiad Newydd o’r Mabinogi i (Hen) Rwsieg
Y cwestiwn cyntaf, efallai, yw a oes angen cyfieithiad newydd, a dau gyfieithiad o’r Mabinogi i’r Rwsieg yn bodoli’n barod? Yn anffodus, mae’r cyfieithiadau hynny yn anghyflawn ac weithiau yn wallus. Cafwyd y cyfieithiad cyntaf gan Liudmila Volodarskaia (2000): Кельты — Валлийские сказания — Мабиногион [Celtiaid — Chwedlau Cymreig — Mabinogion], ac am fod hwn yn gyfieithiad o Saesneg Charlotte Guest, mae’n Fictoraidd iawn ei naws (gw. yr adolygiad gan Parina (2003)).
Gan Vadim Erlichman y cafwyd yr ail gyfieithiad, Мабиногион. Волшебные легенды Уэльса [Mabinogion. Chwedlau Hudol Cymru], a hwnnw bellach wedi ei argraffu ddwywaith (Erlichman 1995; Erlichman 2002). Trafodir yr argraffiad cyntaf gan Parina (2003) a’r ail argraffiad gan A. Falileyev (2002). Mae Erlichman yn dal iddo gyfieithu o destun Llyfr Coch Hergest – ac felly o Gymraeg Canol – ond oherwydd y camgymeriadau niferus, gwêl yr adolygwyr fod lle i amau a yw hynny’n hollol wir. Digon yw nodi i’r llythyren [v] Gymraeg gael ei thrawsgrifo yn <ф> [f] Rwsieg, yn hytrach na fel <в> [v], er mwyn cadw enwau yn ‘hudol’ ac yn ‘egsotig’ (Erlichman 1995: 216).
The Symbolism of the Staff in St. Patrick’s Hagiography
St. Patrick possessed a special item – a staff, in later lives named Bachal Ísu (‘The Staff of Jesus’): with this he founded churches and destroyed pagan shrines, protected his allies and cursed his enemies. As literary and iconographic sources show (for the iconography of bell and bachall see Bittel 2006/2007), St. Patrick was not the only Irish saint who worked wonders using a staff, a symbol closely associated with the Christian Church in early medieval Ireland.
Although walking sticks have been common among clergy and laymen for centuries, the Irish saw deep symbolism in saint’s staffs, venerating them and swearing on them (Gillespie 1997: 34). We might assume that the image of St. Patrick’s staff (as an example of such veneration) would have its origins in the Bible and, indeed, if we analyze passages from the Vulgate that contain the words virga, baculus, sceptrum etc., we see that many of these passages may have inspired Irish hagiographers.
The Possessive Construction with cuid ‘part’
Irish makes special use of cuid ‘part’ in the pronominal possessor construction with plural and non-count nouns: e.g. mo chuid eolais ‘my knowledge’, lit. ‘my part of knowledge’. It is argued that cuid is a pseudo-partitive marker that explicates the idea of amount of the possessum.
Trawsffurfiadau Gwyn ap Nudd
Mae nodweddion cymeriadau sy’n cael eu defnyddio mewn rhyddiaith a barddoniaeth am gryn amser wrth gwrs yn newid wrth i’r hanesion gael eu hailadrodd. Bydd y trawsffurfiadau hyn yn amlhau pan fo’r traddodiadau llafar a llenyddol yn effeithio ar ei gilydd, ac mae cymeriad Gwyn ap Nudd (brenin Annwn a brenin y Tylwyth Teg) yn perthyn i’r categori hwn. Mae Gwyn i’w weld yn y traddodiadau rhyddiaith a barddoniaeth o’r canol oesoedd (Bartrum 1993: 351; Foster 1953; Roberts 1980/81; Rüdiger 2012).
Ac yntau wedi ei fabwysiadu gan y mudiad neo-Baganaidd yn hanner cyntaf y ganrif ddiwethaf, caiff ei ddefnyddio mewn credoau sy’n dehongli cymeriadau canoloesol Cymraeg fel hen dduwiau neu dduwiesau (Hutton 1999: 192; Rüdiger 2012: 68-77). Eto, ysgolheigion Cymreig y bedwaredd ganrif ar bymtheg sydd bennaf gyfrifol am ysgogi’r datblygiad hwn sy’n priodoli ystyr newydd i’r cymeriadau. Creffir yn yr ysgrif hon ar y datblygiadau hyn yng nghymeriad Gwyn ap Nudd, o’r testunau hynaf, trwy waith John Rhŷs, hyd Robert Graves a Gerald Gardner a’r credoau neo-Baganaidd.
Acquisition of Distorted Language as an Obstacle to Cultural Continuity
The paper aims to disclose some of the reasons for a potential language shift in Wales, and its possible results, despite the fact that Welsh enjoys official status and a supportive legal framework. Using as a comparative case that of Sorbian, which has a much richer morphology and few legal rights, the paper presents a language-orientated means of preventing language shift. In this context, the concept of language health as a language right is introduced.
‘Taming of Islands’: the overcoming of a monster by a Christian Saint as a motif of Irish hagiography
Central to Calvert Watkins’ famous book 'How to Kill a Dragon' is the notion of how a hero gains his ‘everlasting fame’. It was argued that the Irish Saints’ Lives are reminiscent of the tales of secular heroes, with similarities in terms of structure. There are, however, an important difference between the two, and it is clearly the saints’ motivation: a saint is concerned not only with his own fame or with the reputation of the new faith, but also with the purification of the land from paganism.
This goal in Irish hagiographic sources is represented by the motif of the contest with druids, and also by the symbolic battle with an autochthonous monster residing on a small island. It is noteworthy that a saint does not usually kill (orgaid) a dragon but rather ‘tames’ (sochtaid) it.
Welsh ‘Syntactic Mutation and Arabic ‘Faulty Accusative’: case or configuration?
Modern analyses of Welsh syntactic mutation (SM) are either semantic (‘case’) or syntactic (configuration). In Formal Arabic, a persistent, if ostensibly incorrect, ‘faulty (indefinite) accusative’ (FA), instead of correct nominative, is strikingly reminiscent of Welsh SM – all examples of FA in Arabic would show SM in Welsh. Arabic FA may be analysed as either semantic (unaccusative) or syntactic (head-trigger-dependent.acc!).
Unaccusative effects are very old in Semitic, but a configurational intervening trigger analysis, as suggested by Welsh, seems more straightforward today, and would account for all instances of accusative, including correct accusative for direct objects!
In the light of this probable case > configuration reanalysis in Arabic, Welsh SM may have had the following origin and evolution: (1) sandhi~lenition of first post-verbal nominal; (2) following introduction of V-2 in Middle Welsh with frequent fronting of unergative subjects, the first such element is increasingly unaccusative subject (with object-like properties) or direct object – the rule becomes associated with object properties; (3) case > configuration reanalysis to head-trigger-SM.dependent.
This analogous marking phenomenon in each language thus helps to elucidate that of the other language, and a case configuration reanalysis is suggested for both Welsh SM and Arabic FA.
Indo-European from the East and Celtic from the West: reconciling models for languages in later prehistory
Linguistic and archaeological evidence suggests that Celtic branched off from Proto-Indo-European in south-west Europe, in contact with p-less Iberian and Aquitanian/Palaeo-Basque. An overview of some current theories of the Indo-European homeland reveals the limitations of the family-tree model and favours alternatives.
Evidence for the Celticity of the South-western (a.k.a. Tartessian) inscriptions of the Early Iron Age (750–500 BC) will be briefly summarized. The archaeological context of the SW stelae shows a survival or revival of funerary rites of the same region (south Portugal) of the Early and Middle Bronze Age (1800–1300 BC). This nativist revival articulates an indigenous cultural identity predating the arrival of the Phoenicians, iron working, and literacy in Atlantic Iberia, all of which occurred by 900 BC.
Looking into the deeper prehistory of the Copper Age of the 3rd millennium BC, the distinctive features of the SW necropolises (e.g., anthropomorphic stelae depicting high-status weapons and reused as lids over single-burial cists at the centres of paved circular barrows) have antecedents in the ‘Yamnaya package’ of the Pontic steppes, rather than the local Beaker complex. This steppe culture, which expanded west to Hungary 2900–2700 BC, has been associated with the expansion of Indo-European languages in the traditional ‘kurgan’ theory of Gimbutas and Mallory.
John Morris-Jones a’i Ddeddfiadau / John Morris-Jones and his Prescriptions
Yn 1913 cyhoeddodd John Morris-Jones ei waith arwyddocaol Welsh Grammar: Historical and Comparative. Hwn oedd y disgrifiad mawr cyntaf o Gymraeg llenyddol a oedd yn seiliedig ar ddatblygiad ieitheg Geltaidd gymharol. Yr oedd hefyd yn ramadeg hynod o ddeddfol a chanddo, yng ngeiriau Morris-Jones, y nod ymarferol o bennu ‘the traditional forms of the literary language’ a chael gwared ar ‘fictitious forms’ a oedd yn deillio o ‘false etymological theories’. Bydd y papur hwn yn rhoi ystyriaeth i un o’r deddfiadau mewn manylder. Erbyn ail hanner y bedwaredd ganrif ar bymtheg roedd y ffurf Gymraeg Canol wyneb (Hen Wydd. enech) wedi datblyu g- anorganig a gwyneb oedd y brif ffurf mewn Cymraeg ysgrifenedig. Bydd y papur yn olrhain ymdrechion obsesiynol Morris-Jones i ailorseddu wyneb fel y ffurf ‘gywir’ mewn Cymraeg ysgrifenedig.
In 1913 John Morris-Jones published his monumental Welsh Grammar: Historical and Comparative. It was the first major description of literary Welsh to be based on modern Celtic comparative linguistics. It was also a highly prescriptive grammar that had, in the words of Morris-Jones, the practical aim ‘of determining the traditional forms of the literary language’ and of culling ‘fictitious forms’ that derived from ‘false etymological theories’. This paper will consider one prescription in detail. By the second half of the nineteenth century middle Welsh wyneb ‘face’ (Old Ir. enech) had developed an inorganic g- and gwyneb had become the predominant form in written Welsh. The paper will trace Morris-Jones’s obsessive attempt to reinstate wyneb as the ‘correct’ literary form in written Welsh.
Medieval Welsh History in the Victorian Age
This lecture aims to assess what the history of medieval Wales meant to people, especially Welsh people, in the Victorian period. Given the breadth of the topic, coverage will necessarily be exploratory rather than exhaustive. The discussion will proceed in three stages. The first will provide some introductory background (both to Victorian Wales and to the writing of Welsh history); the second will assess how Welsh medieval history was approached, especially with respect to the treatment of sources; and the third will consider why the history of Wales continued to be presented as something that had largely if not wholly taken place in the Middle Ages and earlier.
Mesur, Cynghanedd, Person: strwythur a throsiad mewn rhai cerddi canoloesol hwyr / Metre, Cynghanedd, Person: structure and tropology in some late-medieval poems
TY mae’r papur yn taro golwg ar strwythur cywyddau Dafydd Gorlech. Mae adrannau’r cerddi yn cael eu dynodi gan ddefnydd pwrpasol o’r gwahanol gynganeddion, a rhoddir yma sylw penodol i amser, person a modd y ferf yn yr adrannau hynny. Ystyrir a oes arwyddocâd trosiadol i’r elfennau hynny.
This paper concerns the structure of Dafydd Gorlech’s cywyddau. Attention is paid to the sectioning of the poems according to the use of cynghanedd, and to the use of verbal tense and person in these sections. It is considered whether there is significance to the tropological use of these elements.